OP, if you're still seeking input, may I offer a few suggestions:
1) You or your brother might want to check the US Dept of State website for any country or regional advisories (http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1124.html
). By golly, they even have an Iphone app. Really? Do wonders ever cease?
2) Have him apply some good google-fu on whether Ghana restricts "camo" into the country for, not only clothes, but luggage or, in this case, your planned "E&E" kit. Not familiar with Africa but I know several countries in Central/South America do not allow camo and they can even be a bit zealous around black & O.D. items, like cargo pants, if they think it screams "military" or "para-military". Stick with subdued: think "beige" (okay, coyote tan) and, not screaming expensive (Northface, Patagonia) - more Kelty & Dickies. Tough, affordable, but might keep him off the radar as a high-roller target.
3) I'm sure he'll touch base with his physician on any advisable pre-trip shots and, as already mentioned, any meds that'd be good to bring along. I went to the Pac-rim awhile back and my doctor prescribed, for emergencies-only, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, an antidiahrreal (stronger than Immodium), a non-narcotic, but stronger than OTC, pain-killer, with instructions on all of them for when & how to use each. Also, any specific meds he may need. Good idea to bring a bit more than he think he'll need in case his departure is delayed for any reason. Also suggest he has his doctor write a paper prescription for each one, as a back-up, and just in case any Customs person asks. Keep the prescription meds in their original containers and store in a carry-on, or in his pockets if feasible. You can reverse-carry a small backpack (pack in front, straps around the back, to avoid chance of loss). Stash a water bottle or two in the side pockets of the pack.
4) A colleague went to Cameroon, I think it was, on a church mission with his teenage son, in the past few months. First, he mentioned the "graft" at the airport (gov, LEO & citizen) & the "assertive begging" they encountered. They quickly learned how their in-country hosts dealt with those "local customs". No prejudice or slight toward anyone intended, just reporting what happened & how dealt with.
Second item to warn on was "rebottled bottled water" and discipline on what other water was ingested 'accidentally' (teeth-brushing, raw but washed fruit (avoid), etc.). It wasn’t that the locals avoided this water, the visitors just didn’t have any resistance to the pathogens. One of them was put out-of-commission with fever & dysentery for several days, so prevention is key and is compounded if out in the bush, running from anything. Again, check on travel restrictions, but a small supply of pre-packaged food items would be good to have (aforementioned Clif bars, tropical chocolate, fruit leather, candy and gum and so on).
Third note was to use extreme caution keeping any real valuables in a hotel 'safe' - only guarantee is the staff's reputation (theirs was shaky at best) so YMMV.
Fourth, sunscreen, lip balm (Chapstick with SPF, Burt's Bees, cheap petro-jelly) were all wicked valuable (& can double as fire starter). Hand sanitizer was worth its weight in gold, as was bug juice.
Lastly, they learned to keep a low profile but also learned not to look like a victim-in-waiting, either.
5) Surely have to second the water purification items (good small filter/purifier/tabs - I find the Katadyn Micropur tabs pretty small & a small expense compared to the peace of mind). Take a look here: http://www.amazon.com/s/?ie=UTF8&keywords=micropur+mp1&tag=googhydr-20&index=sporting&hvadid=7754797905&hvpos=1t1&hvexid=&hvnetw=g&hvrand=126908564170989618&hvpone=&hvptwo=&hvqmt=b&ref=pd_sl_4hw2ve3b52_b
No chemical is great for long-term consumption but iodine or plain bleach (allowed to work and dissipate before drinking will kill the nasties) will take care in the short-term.
A good bandanna or non-mil shemagh will soak up the sweat, double-duty as a do-rag to cover the noggin, and can pre-filter the big silt or floaters out of natural water sources before disinfection, if needed.
6) EDC the normal stuff. A cheap Bic lighter or two is typical, Leatherman-clone, metal pen - think dual or more uses. Copies of travel docs essential (passport/work visa/photo id/drivers license, credit card & phn #'s to call to cancel them if lost or stolen, map & phone number to Embassy. All laminated if possible. Stash it all into a neck wallet, zipper belt, inside-pants pocket (not the regular pockets), or those pouch-wallets that hang suspended from your belt inside pants. This was mentioned before – recommend to heed that advice. Don't take every card he owns but, on the ones he does, insure the bank knows the one(s) he’ll take will be used in a foreign country & for what date-range. Lanyard or tether keys & tie to belt or belt loop; similar for a blade/multi-tool. A second, cheapo nylon, toss-away wallet (no real identity, few small bills) might be worth the hassle to get away in a tight spot. Think outside the box – what normal stuff can be used in ingenious ways.
7) Understand you asked for feedback on E&E kit suggestions specifically. I'm not associated with or connected to Randall's in any way but you might want to take a look at http://www.eseeknives.com/survivalkit.htm
for ideas. Keep what works, toss what you don’t think will. Most importantly, you mentioned his hiking, so he'll probably know how to use & apply his equipment but, as retold many times, knowledge trumps gear every time. If the admin & mods don't mind, in addition to the WEALTH of info here at ZS, take a look at Doug Ritter's site (apologies & delete this part if this should violate forum rules or present any conflicts). A good SAK & FAK shouldn't raise too many eyebrows and are usually non-threatening but useful in a typical get-outta-dodge scenario. Good civvie boonie for shade, & sunglasses on a Croakies or similar. Tie him up a para-cord belt, or neck strap for his camera; pretty inconspicuous but great if needed & won't stand out like a hank of rope hanging off his bag might.
8) As others have offered, where's he E&E'ing "TO"? If he ventures out into the nether regions, always good to let someone trusted know where & when he plans to return, etc. Good advice most any time. Bug-out destinations or “safe-houses” or “safer” locations are probably good to identify in advance. The less that’s left to chance, or someone’s best guess, is probably the better & smarter option. A library(?), a hospital, a church/synagogue/etc., our embassy, or a friendly embassy, are possibly good locations to know, if in the city. On those “out of the way” journeys, maybe a "safe" pick-up spot already agreed to and pre-identified? Obviously visitors tend to stand-out so hard to hide in plain sight or blend in with locals - food for thought. Some local garb might help. Use his head in all cases. Stay away from politically-charged events and hot-spots and ‘bad’ neighborhoods, if possible.
I know this is a bit off-topic but hope it gives some ideas to pass on.
Stay safe!! And, you know, he should try to enjoy himself along the way. That’s a heck of a trip…