MayoClinic.com says the signs of vitamin deficiency anemia are:
It's caused by a lack of iron, vitamin B-12, folate and/or vitamin C. You need all of them to make and maintain red blood cells.* Pale skin
* Sore mouth and tongue
* Shortness of breath
* Loss of appetite
* Numbness or tingling in your hands and feet
* Muscle weakness
* Mental confusion or forgetfulness
Iron - eating nails won't help you here.
The good news is, there's Iron in whole wheat, potato skins, leafy veggies, beans, legumes, and meat. Go nuts.
Vitamin B-12 - Occurs naturally only in animal products (eggs, milk, meat)
You can also suffer from a deficiency by way of chronic intestinal infestation by the fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium
If you're eating animals, and the fishy ones are cooked first, you shouldn't have a problem. Those of you planning on staying vegan after TSHTF better pack your b12 supplements.
Scurvy / Vitamin C deficiency.
Vitamin C is in citrus fruits, to be sure, but if you can't store/grow them, there are other options.
Sauerkraut kept the Dutch sailors from getting scurvy, rose hips are full of vitamin C, and tea brewed with 1/4 cup of pine needles has all the vitamin C you need for the day. If you are morally opposed to NOT eating animals, there's as much vitamin C in raw calf liver as there is in dried lime. You lose a lot if you fry the liver, but if you boil it you can keep the vitamin C. Oh the wonders of wikipedia...
Folate is the name for Vitamin B-9.
You can find it in leafy veggies, peas and beans. Most fortified grains in the US have B-9 in them.
Rickets is caused by a lack of vitamin D, which prevents calcium uptake into the bones. It makes your bones weaken and bend, and while it's mostly an issue for infants, rickets can cause bone pain, bone weakening, dental problems, and muscle weakness. You get your Vitamin D by being in the sun, kiddies. Redheads need less time in the sun than the rest of us, but we all just need to get outside. For anyone planning on mole-people-ing it, there's Vitamin D in Cod and Halibut Liver Oil, but unless you have a way to catch a lot of cod and drain the oil from their livers in your bunker, I'd suggest a stockpile. You can get cod liver oil at any health food store, probably uncapsulated in bulk if you look hard enough or online.
Vitamin A deficiency causes you to go blind, night blindness first, real blindness soon after.
Vitamin A is in all animal products, as well as carrots, leafy veggies, pumpkin, and others. Stock some dehydrated carrots if you're planning on living on literally just rice and beans. Massive consumption of alcohol can prevent Vitamin A uptake, so mix your whiskey with carrots and pumpkin pie.
Zinc deficiency - symptoms include hair loss, skin lesions, diarrhea, and wasting of body tissues. Fun!
You can find zinc in oysters, and to a far lesser degree in most animal proteins, beans, nuts, almonds, whole grains, pumpkin seeds and sunflower seeds. A turkey's neck and beef's chuck or shank also contain good amounts of zinc.
Magnesium deficiency is another one linked to alcoholism (30% of alcoholics in fact), and overuse of diuretics, like coffee or tea. Magnesium is crucial to the cells of every living creature ever, so if you're eating, and you're not eating rocks, you're getting your Magnesium. If you experience weakness, muscle cramps, cardiac arrhythmia, or tremors, and think it's magnesium deficiency, cut back on the booze and coffee.
Chromium deficiency is only seen in hospital patients on all fluid diets, so don't worry about THAT.
Alcoholism also causes Thiamine (B1) deficiencies, which screw up your memory, so that's another strike against drinking your way through the zombocalypse. Actually, same goes for all B vitamins, so moderation is your best bet. Multivitamins won't help, because it prevents the absorption.
Lack of Vitamin B-3 can cause diarrhea, rashes, dementia, and death (within 4 years). Luckily, you can make B-3 from tryptophan, which is in all animal products' protein, as well as other places. The only people who suffer from this disorder (pellagra) are those who live almost exclusively on corn. B-3 is in most diets, even vegetarian ones, it's just that corn has very little B-3 OR tryptophan.
Did I miss anything?