Climate change. World ends by 2050.

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Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by moab » Mon Jun 03, 2019 4:59 pm

https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/597k ... btwitterus

"New Report Suggests ‘High Likelihood of Human Civilization Coming to an End’ in 2050

The climate change analysis was written by a former fossil fuel executive and backed by the former chief of Australia's military.

A harrowing scenario analysis of how human civilization might collapse in coming decades due to climate change has been endorsed by a former Australian defense chief and senior royal navy commander.

The analysis, published by the Breakthrough National Centre for Climate Restoration, a think-tank in Melbourne, Australia, describes climate change as “a near- to mid-term existential threat to human civilization” and sets out a plausible scenario of where business-as-usual could lead over the next 30 years.

The paper argues that the potentially “extremely serious outcomes” of climate-related security threats are often far more probable than conventionally assumed, but almost impossible to quantify because they “fall outside the human experience of the last thousand years.”

On our current trajectory, the report warns, “planetary and human systems [are] reaching a ‘point of no return’ by mid-century, in which the prospect of a largely uninhabitable Earth leads to the breakdown of nations and the international order.”


The only way to avoid the risks of this scenario is what the report describes as “akin in scale to the World War II emergency mobilization”—but this time focused on rapidly building out a zero-emissions industrial system to set in train the restoration of a safe climate.

The scenario warns that our current trajectory will likely lock in at least 3 degrees Celsius (C) of global heating, which in turn could trigger further amplifying feedbacks unleashing further warming. This would drive the accelerating collapse of key ecosystems “including coral reef systems, the Amazon rainforest and in the Arctic.”

The results would be devastating. Some one billion people would be forced to attempt to relocate from unlivable conditions, and two billion would face scarcity of water supplies. Agriculture would collapse in the sub-tropics, and food production would suffer dramatically worldwide. The internal cohesion of nation-states like the US and China would unravel.

“Even for 2°C of warming, more than a billion people may need to be relocated and in high-end scenarios, the scale of destruction is beyond our capacity to model with a high likelihood of human civilization coming to an end,” the report notes.

The new policy briefing is written by David Spratt, Breakthrough’s research director and Ian Dunlop, a former senior executive of Royal Dutch Shell who previously chaired the Australian Coal Association.

In the briefing’s foreword, retired Admiral Chris Barrie—Chief of the Australian Defence Force from 1998 to 2002 and former Deputy Chief of the Australian Navy—commends the paper for laying “bare the unvarnished truth about the desperate situation humans, and our planet, are in, painting a disturbing picture of the real possibility that human life on Earth may be on the way to extinction, in the most horrible way.”

Barrie now works for the Climate Change Institute at Australian National University, Canberra.

Spratt told Motherboard that a key reason the risks are not understood is that “much knowledge produced for policymakers is too conservative. Because the risks are now existential, a new approach to climate and security risk assessment is required using scenario analysis.”

Last October, Motherboard reported on scientific evidence that the UN’s summary report for government policymakers on climate change—whose findings were widely recognized as “devastating”—were in fact too optimistic.

While the Breakthrough scenario sets out some of the more ‘high end’ risk possibilities, it is often not possible to meaningfully quantify their probabilities. As a result, the authors emphasize that conventional risk approaches tend to downplay worst-case scenarios despite their plausibility.

Spratt and Dunlop’s 2050 scenario illustrates how easy it could be to end up in an accelerating runaway climate scenario which would lead to a largely uninhabitable planet within just a few decades.

“A high-end 2050 scenario finds a world in social breakdown and outright chaos,” said Spratt. “But a short window of opportunity exists for an emergency, global mobilization of resources, in which the logistical and planning experiences of the national security sector could play a valuable role.”

"
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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by MPMalloy » Mon Jun 03, 2019 5:28 pm

moab wrote:
Mon Jun 03, 2019 4:59 pm
https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/597k ... btwitterus

"New Report Suggests ‘High Likelihood of Human Civilization Coming to an End’ in 2050

The climate change analysis was written by a former fossil fuel executive and backed by the former chief of Australia's military.

A harrowing scenario analysis of how human civilization might collapse in coming decades due to climate change has been endorsed by a former Australian defense chief and senior royal navy commander.

The analysis, published by the Breakthrough National Centre for Climate Restoration, a think-tank in Melbourne, Australia, describes climate change as “a near- to mid-term existential threat to human civilization” and sets out a plausible scenario of where business-as-usual could lead over the next 30 years.

The paper argues that the potentially “extremely serious outcomes” of climate-related security threats are often far more probable than conventionally assumed, but almost impossible to quantify because they “fall outside the human experience of the last thousand years.”

On our current trajectory, the report warns, “planetary and human systems [are] reaching a ‘point of no return’ by mid-century, in which the prospect of a largely uninhabitable Earth leads to the breakdown of nations and the international order.”


The only way to avoid the risks of this scenario is what the report describes as “akin in scale to the World War II emergency mobilization”—but this time focused on rapidly building out a zero-emissions industrial system to set in train the restoration of a safe climate.

The scenario warns that our current trajectory will likely lock in at least 3 degrees Celsius (C) of global heating, which in turn could trigger further amplifying feedbacks unleashing further warming. This would drive the accelerating collapse of key ecosystems “including coral reef systems, the Amazon rainforest and in the Arctic.”

The results would be devastating. Some one billion people would be forced to attempt to relocate from unlivable conditions, and two billion would face scarcity of water supplies. Agriculture would collapse in the sub-tropics, and food production would suffer dramatically worldwide. The internal cohesion of nation-states like the US and China would unravel.

“Even for 2°C of warming, more than a billion people may need to be relocated and in high-end scenarios, the scale of destruction is beyond our capacity to model with a high likelihood of human civilization coming to an end,” the report notes.

The new policy briefing is written by David Spratt, Breakthrough’s research director and Ian Dunlop, a former senior executive of Royal Dutch Shell who previously chaired the Australian Coal Association.

In the briefing’s foreword, retired Admiral Chris Barrie—Chief of the Australian Defence Force from 1998 to 2002 and former Deputy Chief of the Australian Navy—commends the paper for laying “bare the unvarnished truth about the desperate situation humans, and our planet, are in, painting a disturbing picture of the real possibility that human life on Earth may be on the way to extinction, in the most horrible way.”

Barrie now works for the Climate Change Institute at Australian National University, Canberra.

Spratt told Motherboard that a key reason the risks are not understood is that “much knowledge produced for policymakers is too conservative. Because the risks are now existential, a new approach to climate and security risk assessment is required using scenario analysis.”

Last October, Motherboard reported on scientific evidence that the UN’s summary report for government policymakers on climate change—whose findings were widely recognized as “devastating”—were in fact too optimistic.

While the Breakthrough scenario sets out some of the more ‘high end’ risk possibilities, it is often not possible to meaningfully quantify their probabilities. As a result, the authors emphasize that conventional risk approaches tend to downplay worst-case scenarios despite their plausibility.

Spratt and Dunlop’s 2050 scenario illustrates how easy it could be to end up in an accelerating runaway climate scenario which would lead to a largely uninhabitable planet within just a few decades.

“A high-end 2050 scenario finds a world in social breakdown and outright chaos,” said Spratt. “But a short window of opportunity exists for an emergency, global mobilization of resources, in which the logistical and planning experiences of the national security sector could play a valuable role.”

"
I don't know what to think about the outlet. Having said that, I can believe this. Unfortunately.

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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by flybynight » Mon Jun 03, 2019 6:13 pm

Crap.. In 2050 I'd be 94. I'm going to miss it :mrgreen:
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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by Stercutus » Mon Jun 03, 2019 6:51 pm

It is a Monday so Vice is running Climate Change TEOTWAWKI again. The date is a moving target of course.
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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by 12_Gauge_Chimp » Mon Jun 03, 2019 9:35 pm

Stercutus wrote:
Mon Jun 03, 2019 6:51 pm
It is a Monday so Vice is running Climate Change TEOTWAWKI again. The date is a moving target of course.
I sort of envision the climate change deal like the old Peanuts comic strip where Charlie Brown is trying to kick the football and Lucy keeps moving it just before he's able to kick it.

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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by NT2C » Mon Jun 03, 2019 10:40 pm

Wait, I thought it already ended? I could have sworn that about fifteen years ago they were saying it would end in twelve years. When did we get an extension?
flybynight wrote:
Mon Jun 03, 2019 6:13 pm
Crap.. In 2050 I'd be 94. I'm going to miss it :mrgreen:
So will I. I'll save you a seat. You bring the beer, I'll bring the popcorn.
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Sic quemadmodum gladius neminem occidit; occidentis telum est - Seneca the Younger, Epistles

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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by flybynight » Tue Jun 04, 2019 4:02 am

The dead don't eat popcorn.... intones flybynight sepulcherously.
Not all those who wander are lost

John Titor was right <--- :ohdear: Way past the point of going gray man. See you on the other side ( or not :wink: )

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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by Stercutus » Tue Jun 04, 2019 7:05 am

NT2C wrote:
Mon Jun 03, 2019 10:40 pm
Wait, I thought it already ended? I could have sworn that about fifteen years ago they were saying it would end in twelve years. When did we get an extension?
flybynight wrote:
Mon Jun 03, 2019 6:13 pm
Crap.. In 2050 I'd be 94. I'm going to miss it :mrgreen:
So will I. I'll save you a seat. You bring the beer, I'll bring the popcorn.
I'll have to sneak it in to you. There is no way the nurse will let either of you have anything of the kind.
You go 'round and around it
You go over and under
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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by MacWa77ace » Tue Jun 04, 2019 8:51 am

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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by NT2C » Tue Jun 04, 2019 9:22 am

flybynight wrote:
Tue Jun 04, 2019 4:02 am
The dead don't eat popcorn.... intones flybynight sepulcherously.
More for me then.
Nonsolis Radios Sediouis Fulmina Mitto. - USN Gunner's Mate motto

Sic quemadmodum gladius neminem occidit; occidentis telum est - Seneca the Younger, Epistles

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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by NT2C » Tue Jun 04, 2019 9:24 am

Stercutus wrote:
Tue Jun 04, 2019 7:05 am
NT2C wrote:
Mon Jun 03, 2019 10:40 pm
Wait, I thought it already ended? I could have sworn that about fifteen years ago they were saying it would end in twelve years. When did we get an extension?
flybynight wrote:
Mon Jun 03, 2019 6:13 pm
Crap.. In 2050 I'd be 94. I'm going to miss it :mrgreen:
So will I. I'll save you a seat. You bring the beer, I'll bring the popcorn.
I'll have to sneak it in to you. There is no way the nurse will let either of you have anything of the kind.
I've already known this nurse 20 years, as long as she gets her share it's fine.
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Sic quemadmodum gladius neminem occidit; occidentis telum est - Seneca the Younger, Epistles

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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by Dabster » Tue Jun 04, 2019 12:14 pm

I realize that climate change/collapse is a favorite tool of the media to sell commercials but this seems a bit worse than the meteor that "might" hit. It is that it's too far away? Should we talk about things we can do to help our children and grandchildren?
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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by raptor » Tue Jun 04, 2019 12:47 pm

Climate change fiction has been a very popular subject. This is the first book I read on the subject as a child.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Forgotten_Enemy

One thing to remember, the earth evolved from a lifeless void without an atmosphere into the world we see today. There have been numerous changes in "climate" throughout existence. The most recent ice age and and the warming that followed carved the Great Lakes ~ 12,000 to 14,000 years ago when the glaciers retreated. Sea level has risen from the first water molecule to the massive oceans of today. They have risen and fallen many times. None of these natural processes were or could be affected by humans.

The earth's climate will change and continue to change through natural processes regardless of what humans do or in their arrogance think they can do.

As for extinction by 2050; If humans are extinct by 2050 IMO it will be due to basic human nature.

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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by NT2C » Tue Jun 04, 2019 1:55 pm

raptor wrote:
Tue Jun 04, 2019 12:47 pm
Climate change fiction has been a very popular subject. This is the first book I read on the subject as a child.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Forgotten_Enemy

One thing to remember, the earth evolved from a lifeless void without an atmosphere into the world we see today. There have been numerous changes in "climate" throughout existence. The most recent ice age and and the warming that followed carved the Great Lakes ~ 12,000 to 14,000 years ago when the glaciers retreated. Sea level has risen from the first water molecule to the massive oceans of today. They have risen and fallen many times. None of these natural processes were or could be affected by humans.

The earth's climate will change and continue to change through natural processes regardless of what humans do or in their arrogance think they can do.

As for extinction by 2050; If humans are extinct by 2050 IMO it will be due to basic human nature.
We really need a "like" button on here. This is what I've been saying for decades now. Can humans have an impact on climate? Sure, through activities like planting crops or deforestation, but such things happen naturally too with fires and normal weather variations. Yes, we have an impact, no, it's not a huge one.
Nonsolis Radios Sediouis Fulmina Mitto. - USN Gunner's Mate motto

Sic quemadmodum gladius neminem occidit; occidentis telum est - Seneca the Younger, Epistles

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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by Dabster » Tue Jun 04, 2019 5:09 pm

NT2C wrote:
Tue Jun 04, 2019 1:55 pm
We really need a "like" button on here. This is what I've been saying for decades now. Can humans have an impact on climate? Sure, through activities like planting crops or deforestation, but such things happen naturally too with fires and normal weather variations. Yes, we have an impact, no, it's not a huge one.
I must respectfully disagree. I know there are rules against politics but this isn't politics, it's science.
In its Fifth Assessment Report, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a group of 1,300 independent scientific experts from countries all over the world under the auspices of the United Nations, concluded there's a more than 95 percent probability that human activities over the past 50 years have warmed our planet.

The industrial activities that our modern civilization depends upon have raised atmospheric carbon dioxide levels from 280 parts per million to 400 parts per million in the last 150 years. The panel also concluded there's a better than 95 percent probability that human-produced greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide have caused much of the observed increase in Earth's temperatures over the past 50 years.

The panel's full Summary for Policymakers report is online at https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads ... makers.pdf.
From NASA: https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/. Here's a neat graph that is too big to post: https://climate.nasa.gov/system/content ... 051619.jpg

All of the recent "Once in a hundred years" weather events? All related: https://www.ucsusa.org/global-warming/s ... -is-rising

OMG! Did I just out myself as the sole liberal on this website? :gonk:
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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by NT2C » Tue Jun 04, 2019 5:54 pm

Dabster wrote:
Tue Jun 04, 2019 5:09 pm
OMG! Did I just out myself as the sole liberal on this website? :gonk:
No idea if you did or you didn't. We check such labels at the door and just refer to each other as people, members, adults, and other such non-derogatory labels. :wink:
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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by Stercutus » Tue Jun 04, 2019 6:18 pm

Nope. Plenty of leftist around here also right wing, moderates, communists, anarchists and whatever not that it matters.

But I am also going to disagree to a point but for other reasons. It is clear we have altered the environment on a planetary scale. Should alien archeologists find our remains they will either be astounded by our foolhardiness or nod knowingly.

By paving huge surfaces of the Earth we have interrupted and altered various water cycles around the planet. By destroying large tracts of forests in South America and other places we have altered all kinds of things. For example it does not rain the same as it did in what used to be a rain forest. We filled the oceans with all kinds of garbage and forever altered the eco system there. We have reduced the amount of competing animals on the planet by over 90%.

Ozone depletion was a real thing and changed the amount and intensity of the UVB's entering in to "our" part of the atmosphere. Since the cause was discovered and could be pointed to it has since been stopped reversed to a degree.

Which brings us around to "climate change". There are a number of threads on this and I am not going to rehash the salient points but I will point out that the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is slowly increasing. Eventually it could kill us. CO2 is after all a toxic waste product excreted from the body.

However I believe that the solution to that problem has been arrived at or we are very close. CCS technology is starting to mature and can reduce CO2 emission by 90% for electricity production. Using biomass we can even go negative carbon for energy production. It isn't really that expensive either. Aside from that carbon free energy production has been expanding geometrically.

While much ado has been made about some political leaders in the US not taking action or doing whatever the emissions in the US have decreased per capita substantially in the last 50 years and drastically in the last ten years and this trend will continue.
You go 'round and around it
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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by 12_Gauge_Chimp » Tue Jun 04, 2019 7:17 pm

Speaking of the world ending, I think for as long as the Earth has been around, there's probably been folks going around saying "The end is coming".

Hell, for all we know there probably was a dinosaur with a sandwich board that said that. Only difference is that one was right and their world ended. Ours came along shortly after and someone else took up the board and carried on.

My mother used to tell me stories when I was younger about my uncles and one's obsession with the world ending in 1980. 1981 came and he went back to whatever it was he did. Farming, probably.

As for labels, I consider myself a "meat popsicle" like Bruce Willis' character in "The Fifth Element". :lol:

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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by MPMalloy » Tue Jun 04, 2019 10:08 pm

Stercutus wrote:
Tue Jun 04, 2019 6:18 pm
Nope. Plenty of leftist around here also right wing, moderates, communists, anarchists and whatever not that it matters.

But I am also going to disagree to a point but for other reasons. It is clear we have altered the environment on a planetary scale. Should alien archeologists find our remains they will either be astounded by our foolhardiness or nod knowingly.

By paving huge surfaces of the Earth we have interrupted and altered various water cycles around the planet. By destroying large tracts of forests in South America and other places we have altered all kinds of things. For example it does not rain the same as it did in what used to be a rain forest. We filled the oceans with all kinds of garbage and forever altered the eco system there. We have reduced the amount of competing animals on the planet by over 90%.

Ozone depletion was a real thing and changed the amount and intensity of the UVB's entering in to "our" part of the atmosphere. Since the cause was discovered and could be pointed to it has since been stopped reversed to a degree.

Which brings us around to "climate change". There are a number of threads on this and I am not going to rehash the salient points but I will point out that the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is slowly increasing. Eventually it could kill us. CO2 is after all a toxic waste product excreted from the body.

However I believe that the solution to that problem has been arrived at or we are very close. CCS technology is starting to mature and can reduce CO2 emission by 90% for electricity production. Using biomass we can even go negative carbon for energy production. It isn't really that expensive either. Aside from that carbon free energy production has been expanding geometrically.

While much ado has been made about some political leaders in the US not taking action or doing whatever the emissions in the US have decreased per capita substantially in the last 50 years and drastically in the last ten years and this trend will continue.
I always thought the screen name "Fanatical Moderate" was pretty cool. :)

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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by raptor » Wed Jun 05, 2019 1:10 pm

Hmmm.. I think my comment about geology and the many changes and mass extinctions the earth has seen in its 4mm years +/- was not sufficiently clear.

Humans are a very recent "arrival" to Earth and its climate. Humans existing in any significant population size are in geological terms are current news.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_ ... ry_of_life

A "guess" at the formation First oxygen...never mind nitrogen or CO2.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Oxygenation_Event

A brief description of geologic events in which the contents of the atmosphere varied widely from the current levels of Oxygen(21%) nitrogen(78%)along with the balance of other gases like argon, carbon dioxide and methane.
http://www.glyfac.buffalo.edu/courses/g ... _Scale.pdf

The mass extinction events through out geological history are numerous ...long, long before dinosaurs were wiped out in the relatively recent Jurassic period and many since then. Some extinctions we assume are due to climate changes, others for reasons simply unknown.

It is arrogance to assume that humans are exempt from this possibility for whatever reason.

That said IMO if a mass human extinction event occurs within the next 30 years my money and my bet as to the cause will be on human nature (i.e. war, disease, epidemic) as opposed to Mother Nature.

BTW if as noted above, aliens arrived; I suspect that the only judgement they would be making is how best to eliminate the infestation of humans. Any life form that could make an interstellar leap is not likely arrive bearing gifts and warm wishes for our continued health. We do not judge the foolishness of roaches which scurry away when the light switch is activated. The logic is the same.

My $.02.


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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by grennels » Thu Jun 06, 2019 2:26 pm

Dabster wrote:
Tue Jun 04, 2019 5:09 pm
NT2C wrote:
Tue Jun 04, 2019 1:55 pm
We really need a "like" button on here. This is what I've been saying for decades now. Can humans have an impact on climate? Sure, through activities like planting crops or deforestation, but such things happen naturally too with fires and normal weather variations. Yes, we have an impact, no, it's not a huge one.
I must respectfully disagree. I know there are rules against politics but this isn't politics, it's science.
In its Fifth Assessment Report, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a group of 1,300 independent scientific experts from countries all over the world under the auspices of the United Nations, concluded there's a more than 95 percent probability that human activities over the past 50 years have warmed our planet.

The industrial activities that our modern civilization depends upon have raised atmospheric carbon dioxide levels from 280 parts per million to 400 parts per million in the last 150 years. The panel also concluded there's a better than 95 percent probability that human-produced greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide have caused much of the observed increase in Earth's temperatures over the past 50 years.

The panel's full Summary for Policymakers report is online at https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads ... makers.pdf.
From NASA: https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/. Here's a neat graph that is too big to post: https://climate.nasa.gov/system/content ... 051619.jpg

All of the recent "Once in a hundred years" weather events? All related: https://www.ucsusa.org/global-warming/s ... -is-rising




Oh, there are a few of us here. Even Liberals wanna survive. I think it might have been Liberals who invented Earth Day back in 1970.

OMG! Did I just out myself as the sole liberal on this website? :gonk:
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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by raptor » Thu Jun 06, 2019 6:04 pm

http://www.newenglandhistoricalsociety. ... p9n2_wJIYw

The year 1816 was known as ‘The Year Without a Summer’ in New England because six inches of snow fell in June and every month of the year had a hard frost. the year without a summer

Temperatures dropped to as low as 40 degrees in July and August as far south as Connecticut. People also called it ‘Eighteen Hundred and Froze to Death’ and the ‘Poverty Year.’

The Year Without A Summer had a far-reaching impact. Crop failures caused hoarding and big price increases for agricultural commodities. People went hungry. Farmers gave up trying to make a living in New England and started heading west. Politicians who ignored the melancholy plight of their constituents found themselves out of office.

And to this day, scientists don’t agree on what caused the bizarre weather in The Year Without a Summer.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Year_Without_a_Summer
Toba catastrophe 70,000 to 75,000 years ago
The 1628–1626 BC climate disturbances, usually attributed to the Minoan eruption of Santorini
The Hekla 3 eruption of about 1200 BC, contemporary with the historical Bronze Age collapse
The Hatepe eruption (sometimes referred to as the Taupo eruption), around AD 180
Extreme weather events of 535–536 have been linked to the effects of a volcanic eruption, possibly at Krakatoa, or Ilopango in El Salvador.
The Heaven Lake eruption of Paektu Mountain between modern-day North Korea and the People's Republic of China, in 969 (± 20 years), is thought to have had a role in the downfall of Balhae.
The 1257 Samalas eruption of Mount Rinjani on the island of Lombok in 1257
An eruption of Kuwae, a Pacific volcano, has been implicated in events surrounding the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.
An eruption of Huaynaputina, in Peru, caused 1601 to be the coldest year in the Northern Hemisphere for six centuries (see Russian famine of 1601–1603); 1601 consisted of a bitterly cold winter, a cold frosty late (possibly nonexistent) spring, and a cool wet summer.
An eruption of Laki, in Iceland, was responsible for up to hundreds of thousands of fatalities throughout the Northern Hemisphere (over 25,000 in England alone), and one of the coldest winters ever recorded in North America, 1783–84; long-term consequences included poverty and famine that may have contributed to the French Revolution in 1789.[36]
The 1883 eruption of Krakatoa caused average Northern Hemisphere summer temperatures to fall by as much as 1.2 °C (2.2 °F).

MPMalloy
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Re: Climate change. World ends by 2050.

Post by MPMalloy » Fri Sep 20, 2019 8:36 am


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